Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Little Picture Questions in SAT Reading 5 Key Tips

Little Picture Questions in SAT Reading 5 Key Tips SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Little picture, or detail, questions make up a significant amount of questions on the SAT Critical Reading sections. Of 4 post-2005 publicly available tests I surveyed, little picture questions accounted for 25% of all passage-based questions and 17% of all SAT Reading questions. This means that it is well worth your time in your SAT Reading prep to make sure you can consistently answer little picture questions accurately and in a reasonable amount of time (what that range is for accuracy and reasonableness will depend on the score you are aiming for). In this article, I’ll provide examples of the different ways the SAT will ask you to use little picture skills, explain the SAT Reading strategies you can use to help with these questions, and end with a walkthrough of a sample questions. First, however, I’ll explain what exactly I mean by â€Å"little picture† questions. Note:The advice in this article is still relevant for the new SAT (March 2016 and beyond), but some of the examples haven't been updated yet. feature image credit: Miniature Fimo Nikon D80 by 55Laney69, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. What Are Little Picture Questions? Little picture questions are questions that ask you to find specific details from a passage. Moreover, you will not just be asked about details at random; SAT Reading questions asks you specifically about details that are vital to understanding the passage (even though you don’t necessarily have to read the whole passage to find these details). For example, you might be asked, based on information from the passage, what the milky blue that appears around the edges of older dogs’ eyes signifies (cataracts); you would NOT, however, be asked the color of the film (unless that had greater significance in the passage as a whole). I’ve divided up little picture questions into two types: Type 1: Find The (Paraphrased) Detail Type 2: Given Line Information, Find What A Word/Phrase Refers To Type 1: Find the (Paraphrased) Detail These questions, which ask you to find a particular detail in the passage (sometimes paraphrased in the answer choice, sometimes stated directly using the same words as the passage), make up the majority of little picture questions. There are two ways in which the SAT Reading will ask you to fact find: 1. Find the Information in a Specific Place By far, questions that give you a location and ask you to find the detail to answer the question are the most common type of little picture question (more than half). Sometimes, you'll have to paraphrase the detail (meaning the passage uses slightly different wording than the correct answer choice). This is most often the case with questions that ask things like the following question: â€Å"Which of the following views of conflict is best supported by lines 37-40 (â€Å"These . . . one†) ?† To answer this question, you must first go to the lines cited in the question... "These places have interesting frictions and incongruities, and often, if you stand at the point of tangency, you can see both sides better than if you were in the middle of either one." ...and paraphrase the information contained in those lines. Only after that should you look at the answer choices to see what matches. In this case, the correct answer is (E) You can learn more about two parties in conflict as an observer than as an involved participant. Depending on how complex the passage is, detail questions with specific line information can require some vocab knowledge. Here's an example of a question where that might be the case: â€Å"The author initially responded to Herd’s request â€Å"with condescension† (lines 13-14) because the author† Lines 13-14: "I still blush at the fact that I went to graduate school to become a historian in order to contribute to the Black Struggle for social justice and yet met her request to write a history of Black women in Indiana with condescension." Now, if you don’t know what â€Å"condescension† means, the question might be tricky. If there is a word you don't know in the question or passage, context clues can often help. In the case of the question above, going on to read the next sentence will help you answer the question without needing to know what â€Å"condescension† means: "I had never even thought about Black women as historical subjects with their own relations to a state’s history, and I thought her invitation and phone call extraordinarily intrusive." Since this sentence is an explanation of the previous sentence, you don't even need to know what "condescension" means to figure out why the author responded to Herd's request "with condescension;" instead, you can just paraphrase the explanatory sentence above to get the answer to the question: (E) viewed Herd’ s request as irrelevant and presumptuous. Of course, if you also don't know the word "presumptuous" (or other words in the answer choices), process of elimination may be your best bet (more on that in Strategies). I've gathered what I think are good examples of detail/little picture questions with location information below, so you can get an idea of how these questions are worded: â€Å"Passage 1 suggests that the Fermi Paradox depends most directly on which assumption?† â€Å"The fourth paragraph (lines 50-56) indicates that Plato’s principal objection to â€Å"poetry† (line 50) was its† â€Å"The comment about â€Å"a new medium of artistic expression† (line 62) primarily suggests that† â€Å"The â€Å"porcupine women of this world† (lines 76-77) are best described as people who† â€Å"Ultimately, Cecil views his remark in line 34 (â€Å"It . . . now†) as† â€Å"The primary reason described for the usefulness of the theory mentioned in line 57 is its ability to† â€Å"In the quotation in lines 61-64, George Will primarily draws attention to† â€Å"Lines 30-34 (â€Å"In spite . . . persevered†) suggest that the author believed that† â€Å"In lines 40-43 (â€Å"Moonless . . . Sun†), the narrator’s comment about the â€Å"arrangement† demonstrates a preference for" 2. Find the Information in a Non-Specific Place The information needed to answer these questions is somewhere in the passage, maybe even narrowed down to a few paragraphs/generalization like â€Å"end of the passage,† but you aren't given specific lines. Because exact location information is not given, the wording of the questions is often even simpler than it is for questions for which you do have specific location information. Sometimes, the words in the question are taken directly from the text. At other times, just as for Type 1, a little paraphrasing is required. Some examples: â€Å"Which statement about the Fermi Paradox is supported by both passages?† â€Å"At the end of the passage, the author suggests that it would be ideal if the† â€Å"According to the author, too much energy today is spent debating† â€Å"In the first two paragraphs of the passage (lines 1-23), the author suggests that both sides of the debate† â€Å"Both passages support which of the following conclusions about Earth’s carrying capacity for humans?† â€Å"Darwin (lines 1-13, Passage 1) and Meek (lines 45-51, Passage 2) serve as examples of† â€Å"Both the author of Passage 1 and the â€Å"experts† mentioned in line 53 of Passage 2 directly support the idea that† Rare Question Types While the majority of little picture questions that ask you to find the (paraphrased) detail are phrased as shown above, there are a couple of rarer question types that I think are worth mentioning. The first of these are the "NOT/EXCEPT" questions. They are relatively rare (I found four examples out of 480 passage-based questions) and generally look something like this: â€Å"The author makes use of all of the following EXCEPT† These questions can be tricky because there will always, ALWAYS be at least one answer choice that banks on you forgetting the "EXCEPT" and, instead, saying to yourself "Aha! The author makes use of this, so it's the right answer." Not that I have ever done this myself. No. Of course not. Even rarer than "NOT/EXCEPT" questions on SAT Reading are what I call the "I, II, III" questions. Here's an example of what I mean: Which of the following can be found in both passages? I. A theory about how people originally traveled to Boston II. An exact date Boston was initially settled III. Reference to possible sources of food for early Bostonians. (A) I only (B) II only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III Fortunately, this is one case where the question looks more obnoxious than it is. Why? Because you can use process of elimination to your advantage. Let's say you are able to immediately cross out statement II - the passage contains no information about an exact date when Boston was initially settled. That means that you can eliminate answer choices (B), (D), and (E) right away, and can focus your efforts on statement III (if it's true, then (C) must be the correct answer; if it's false, than (A) must be the correct answer). Clock Face by David~O, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Type 2: Given Line Information, Find What a Word/Phrase Refers to These are detail questions where you are given a word or phrase (in a specific line) and asked what it's referring to. In some ways, these questions require you to use skills similar to those you'd need for vocab in context questions, but unlike with vocab in context questions, the correct answer will be very specific to the passage. For example, if a little picture question asks about what the word â€Å"death† refers to, the answer choices won’t be â€Å"the absence of life, the cessation of movement, the end of a fad,† and so on (which would be possible answers if the question was something like "In line 42, the word "death" most nearly means"). Instead, answer choices to detail questions will be highly specific, like â€Å"the neglect of older cultural monuments.† These questions require taking another step because you don’t just have to go to the lines in question to find the detail – you have to figure out what that detail is referring to (which is not necessarily included in the cited lines). I've seen these words (where you have to find what they refer to) called "compression nouns" by Meltzer. Personally, I think of questions that ask you to find what a particular word or phrase refers to as very similar to Prounoun/Antecedent questions on the Writing section; like pronouns, these words refer back to other words/things. Here are some examples of questions that give you a phrase or word and ask you to find the detail it refers to: â€Å"Based on information presented in the passage, which best describes what Georgia was â€Å"tired of † (line 8) ?† â€Å"In lines 63-64, â€Å"psychological reality† describes which quality?† â€Å"As described in lines 17-23, the â€Å"practice† refers to the† â€Å"The phrase â€Å"horrible immensities† (line 54) primarily indicates† SAT Reading Strategies for Mastering Little Picture Questions I've list the following strategies for answering little picture questions in no particular order, since the order you choose will depend on the way you read the passage. (1) To answer little picture questions, start by figuring out what the key information the SAT is looking for in the question. Take the following question: â€Å"Which challenge is emphasized by the author in the final paragraph (lines 73-77)?† Now, here's the key information I extracted from that question: â€Å"final paragraph† (location information) â€Å"challenge† (you’re looking for something that was difficult) maybe â€Å"author† (if there are other people who could be emphasizing challenges in that context, then specifying that you're looking for a challenge emphasized by the author is important; otherwise, the author thing is pretty much something you can take for granted) (2) Figure out where in the passage the detail being asked about is (if you aren’t given the exact lines outright) and read the relevant section slowly. How do you find the detail if you aren't given the exact lines outright? While sometimes the questions use the same language as the passage, and all you have to do is scan the passage for the words used in the question to get your answer, this is not always true. In these cases, your best bet is to turn to the answer choices and see if you can find those in the text instead (and then if you don't find an answer choice in the text, you can eliminate it!). Because searching for these details can take up way too much time, I would recommend starting with questions that include location information and then moving on to those that lack location information. (3) You can try to quickly answer the question in your own words as well, even though the answer choices are sometimes taken word-for-word from the text. Putting the answers in your own words helps prevent you from falling into â€Å"I recognized the phrasing so I’ll just choose it† trap (when in fact the SAT has sneakily reversed the meaning on you). (4) As always, process of elimination is hugely helpful with these questions – if the text directly contradicts an answer choice, you can cross it out with no worries. (5) I almost always do little picture questions first on each passage. For me, hunting for the details gets me acquainted with the passage without having to read the whole thing. Plus, detail questions are easy points because they often involve nothing more than finding what is stated in the text. The order you answer questions in, however, will depend on your reading strategy and what works best for you. If you tend to read the passage thoroughly first, I would recommend answering big picture questions before moving on to little picture questions. That way, you can answer questions about the whole passage before getting lost in the details. If you read the questions first, absolutely start with level one little picture questions (get them out of the way). Answering these questions can give you a better idea of the way the essay is laid out. The only reason not to start with little picture questions would be if you are concerned it might disorient you and make it harder for you to answer other types of questions. If you skim, then answer questions, it could go either way. Skimming can help you form a mental map of where certain details are more likely to show up, which means answering detail questions first would be good...but answering detail questions first also might get you bogged down in detail too quickly and make it harder to answer big picture questions. Ultimately, you need to do some trial and error on your own to figure out which is most effective for you by using each method on multiple practice Reading questions (including SAT Reading sections as well as full length practice SATs). The strategy you get the most points with is the one to go with. Walkthrough To wrap up this article, I'm going to go through an example and apply strategies in my own order (you might find that using the strategies I mention above in a different order works best for you). The question: â€Å"According to lines 41-46 (â€Å"When I . . . crossfire†), the author’s initial goal was to† (A) consider the perspectives of both the American doctors and the Lees family to see what insights might develop (B) serve as a counselor to the county hospital’s Hmong patients in order to ease their anxieties (C) work out a compromise between the American doctors and the Lees family (D) acquire a greater knowledge of how the American medical culture serves patients (E) try to reduce the misunderstandings between the American doctors and the Lees family and promote good will The relevant lines: "When I first came to Merced, I hoped that the culture of American medicine, about which I knew a little, and the culture of the Hmong, about which I knew nothing, would somehow illuminate each other if I could position myself between the two and manage not to get caught in the cross-fire." Step 1: What key info is being looked for in the question? Hmm...what was the author's â€Å"initial goal†? Initial = first, goal =†¦goal. So what was the first thing the author wanted to do? Step 2: Find the passage and read the lines carefully Well, I already found the passage (because the lines are given), but now it's time to read carefully (maybe looking for a word like â€Å"first† or â€Å"initial†). "When I first came to Merced, I hoped that the culture of American medicine, about which I knew a little, and the culture of the Hmong, about which I knew nothing, would somehow illuminate each other if I could position myself between the two and manage not to get caught in the cross-fire." Step 3: Answer in my own words So the passage says that at first the author wanted to stand between the two cultures (American medicine and Hmong). Probably not literally. â€Å"hoped† that they â€Å"would somehow illuminate each other† = hoped that could learn from them? Probably? Bah. Let’s look at the answer choices. (A) consider the perspectives of both the American doctors and the Lees family to see what insights might develop This seems like it could be right –the author definitely wants to consider two different perspectives. Not sure about the rest of the answer choice – might need more context than just the lines cited in the question. (B) serve as a counselor to the county hospital’s Hmong patients in order to ease their anxieties Uh, no, there’s nothing about being a counselor. Can double check context though. (C) work out a compromise between the American doctors and the Lees family Seems like it could be possible, I guess. Except that the first thing the author hopes is that the cultures illuminate each other, not that the author can make a compromise. So maybe a compromise came later, but the illuminating came first. (D) acquire a greater knowledge of how the American medical culture serves patients I mean, sort of? The relevant lines do say something about American medical culture. But nothing about how it serves patients. (E) try to reduce the misunderstandings between the American doctors and the Lees family and promote good will Nothing in the lines cited about promoting goodwill. Looks like I might need a little more context to answer the question. What about the line before the cited lines? â€Å"This is especially true when the apposition is culture† What is â€Å"this†? Or â€Å"apposition?† Hmm let’s see what the line after the cross-fire line is, maybe that’ll be less work. I can always go back to the line before â€Å"This†¦culture† if I need to. â€Å"But after getting to know the Lees family and their daughter’s doctors and realizing how hard it was to blame anyone, I stopped analyzing the situation in such linear terms.† Aha! â€Å"stopped analyzing† meaning that analyzing is what the author WAS doing. Let’s take a look at the answers again. (A) consider the perspectives of both the American doctors and the Lees family to see what insights might develop Yes, author was doing analysis! I’ll double check the others to make sure I can eliminate them. (B) serve as a counselor to the county hospital’s Hmong patients in order to ease their anxieties Nope, even less supported now. ELIMINATE. (C) work out a compromise between the American doctors and the Lees family Nope, compromise ≠  analysis. ELIMINATE. (D) acquire a greater knowledge of how the American medical culture serves patients I mean, that’s part of the goal, but not the whole thing . Also why the â€Å"serves patients†? Not part of the point. The author just didn’t know about the American medical cultural in general. ELIMINATE. (E) try to reduce the misunderstandings between the American doctors and the Lees family and promote good will Nope, no reducing or promoting here! ELIMINATE! To triple check, what was that thing that â€Å"This is especially true when the apposition is cultural† was referring to? Looks like it was referring to part of the previous sentence: "...if you stand at the point of tangency, you can see both sides better than if you were in the middle of either one." Even more confirmation: you can see both sides better does not equal being a counselor, or creating a compromise, learning about how to serve patients, or promoting goodwill. Answer must be (A). Actually answering these questions on the SAT will probably not take nearly this long, because you won’t have to (nor should you) write out complete explanations for every reason to reject the answer like I just did. If you find you’re taking longer than 30-45 seconds on a question, circle it and come back to it later. SAT Reading Practice Questions Intro material and relevant paragraphs for questions 1-3: The following passage is from a 1991 essay that discusses the debate over which authors should be taught in English classes. 1. Lines 30-39 (â€Å"In school . . . cultures†) present a model of education where students learn to (A) value cultural diversity over tradition (B) respect the views of both sides of the debate (C) reflect critically on the nature of American schooling (D) differentiate between classic and contemporary works (E) explore the world through wide-ranging reading 2. In lines 54-60 (â€Å"School . . . say†), the author describes a world in which schools teach books that are (A) interesting (B) celebrated (C) uncontroversial (D) not obviously relevant (E) not likely to inspire 3. Lines 60-64 (â€Å"Being . . . teenagers†) suggest that excluding a book from a reading list might (A) enhance the reputation of the book’s author (B) encourage students to protest the decision (C) influence course curricula nationwide (D) appease conservative parents (E) disappoint the book’s fans Intro material and relevant paragraphs for questions 4-6: The following passage is adapted from a book published in 1999. 4. The â€Å"dark cloud† mentioned in line 4 refers to an (A) atypical diagnosis (B) unsupported hypothesis (C) unknown threat (D) evil influence (E) important contradiction 5. Which pairing best represents the different models of the universe presented in lines 7-14? (A) Big and little (B) Old and new (C) Complex and simple (D) Verified and undocumented (E) Theoretical and practical 6. The author uses the â€Å"automobile† (lines 45-46) to represent equations that (A) demand a professional’s attention (B) are intrinsically unreliable (C) do not work together effectively (D) can be easily adjusted if necessary (E) are based on dated mathematics Answer key (scroll down when ready): 1. E 2. D 3. A 4.E 5. A 6. C Summary of SAT Reading Strategies for Little Picture Questions Find the key information in the question and/or put the question in your own words. Read the indicated part of the passage carefully, looking for context if necessary (especially if you’re being asked what a word or phrase refers to). Answer in your own words and find the answer that matches that answer. Eliminate three wrong answers. What’s Next? â€Å"Where can I find more official practice questions?† I hear you cry. Never fear – we have a complete guide to finding official SAT practice tests, including free links! Interested in more SAT Reading skills articles like this one? We’ve got articles on big picture, words in context, inference, and paired passage questions, or you can just go toour ultimate SAT Reading study guide to find a list of all of our Reading skills articles. Not sure how you’re supposed to finish the SAT Critical Reading section without running out of time? Learn about three different ways to read the passage on the SAT. Need structured help? Try our very own PrepScholar test prep platform. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Reading lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Retention Strategies for Nurse Retirees Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Retention Strategies for Nurse Retirees - Essay Example A more experienced nurse is in a better position to handle the needs of such patients. A multidisciplinary hospital like ours can derive benefits from the experience of such nurses. They can be used as senior educators, mentors or shapers of a new generation of outstanding nurses (RWJF, 2006). Thus, to utilize the services of the older nurses, the hospital must consider retraining for these nurses apart from discouraging policies that allow for an early exit from the profession. There should be no negative attitudes towards the aging workforce or their capabilities and lifelong learning should be encouraged. Mentoring is a concept that is used by all businesses and involves a mentor and a protà ©gà © engaged in a long-term relationship (NLN, 2006). Individuals who experience mentor-protà ©gà © relationship advance faster in their career and earn higher salaries at an early age. The new recruits at the hospital often feel a lack of support and recognition by colleagues but collaboration with others helps them to overcome this feeling of isolation. A personalized supportive relationship has positive outcomes for both the mentor and the mentee. The new faculty member learns community norms as well as the skills, strategies, and practices of teaching. If the role of a mentor is assigned to those that are about to retire, they would benefit from a mentoring relationship as they enter new roles in an academic setting. Through their experience, it would be easier for them to identify potential leaders in nursing and nursing education. They will be in a better position to cultivate a relatio nship in the best of interest of all concerned which includes the hospital, the mentor and the nurse herself. The mentor gets an opportunity to share her/his wisdom, knowledge and experience. The mentor also derives satisfaction from mentoring/guiding others in attaining self-clarity while also developing his/her own skills.  

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Crimonology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Crimonology - Essay Example Biological influences on white collar crime are evident in sex differences between males and females. Sex of a person makes it possible to experience various life consequences. The belief that females, who are supposedly physically more weak, are mistreated more often is also inaccurate. Aside from rape, the only individual crime for which women are victimized more than men is robbery with contact. Men are twice as likely to be the victim of an assault or a robbery and 50 percent more likely to experience some crime of theft. Men are also the victims of strangers more than females (Friedrichs, 2006). Therefore, the idea that physically weaker people constantly fall prey to the criminal has no foundation in fact. Neither females nor older people are particularly prone to white collar crime. But, the lifestyles of these community groups may explain this fact better than their actual vulnerability to criminals. The advantage of this theory is that it explains roots of white collar crime , thus it does not take into account motivational factors and personal intentions of a criminal. Human biology and genetics are the two personal attributes most closely tied to antisocial behavior. Heredity and race are also related. ... ore frequently victims of white collar crime than others, while whites experience property crimes at higher rates than other ethnic and racial groups. For white collar crime, robbery accounts for the higher rate experienced by blacks (Friedrichs, 2006). It is still difficult to define the motivations of women when they commit their white-collar crimes at the workplace. But I am personally apt to think that if women have obtained such top positions at their companies - white-collar positions, they can hardly commit their crimes being motivated by poverty (according to economic marginalization thesis). Women rather try to cash in, in different ways, on their top-level positions. Thus, here opportunity thesis and sometimes, masculinity thesis can be more applicable in order to explain the motivation. As well, criminological theory states that opportunity is a more intense motivation for committing white-collar crimes. According to this theory, people who have achieved a lot on their liv es and have satisfied their needs as a result will need more goods to exchange with others, but not to use. Thus, this need for more possessions (or greed) can make people break the law and perpetrate crimes to receive what they want. Psychological predisposition may lead to antisocial inclinations and increase a possibility of criminal behavior patterns. The cultural ties associated with family income, race, and ethnicity also affect with whom one associates and the places of those associations. Housing, transportation, privacy, and leisure-time factors are related to income as well as to racial and ethnic segregation (Sutherland and Cressey 2001). To the extent that white collar crime varies according to place and event, individuals from different income levels and racial and ethnic

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Images of Women in Film Essay Example for Free

The Images of Women in Film Essay The two films being evaluated in this essay are Now, Voyager and Pretty Woman. Both movies tackle the stories of one lead character, a woman and her transformation from one type of personality – usually the underdog into another which is more successful. This common formulaic plot of an â€Å"ugly duckling† evolving to become a beautiful swan has often been used as a storyboard for romantic films since viewers usually identify with the character who at first seems like the loser, but in the end becomes the victor. The image of Charlotte Vale at the beginning of the film is that of a typical old maid in conservative clothes, flat shoes, without make-up, with glasses, and without any social life. Her appearance is clean and neat but very much old school. From her entry at the initial part of the film, she is portrayed as shy, reserved, unhappy, overweight, unattractive and insecure. She is often ignored by everyone, and even mocked by some of her relatives. She also hates her mother so much but she is helpless and afraid and feels that she has nowhere to go. As the movie unfolds, Charlotte’s character is transformed into a more sophisticated, elegant, modern and glamorous personality, whom everyone adores and likes. Now, she has a well-coiffed hair, wears more revealing outfits, walks comfortably in high-heeled shoes, puts on make-up and smiles more frequently. She becomes cheerful, endearing, sweet and charming, and she loses her previous timidity and stiffness. With her transformation, Charlotte gains confidence in her self, and becomes more capable of facing other people, thus gaining more friends. When reprimanded by her mother for her new looks, she was no longer afraid to answer her back, which even she was surprised to learn. She already knows what direction she wants to take and the good thing is, she already knew how to get there. It is notable that at first, a lot of people were surprised with Charlotte’s transformation but because the change was a positive one which suited Charlotte, the makeover was delightfully accepted by almost everyone but Charlotte’s mother. At first, Charlotte’s mother insisted that she should go back into her old clothes and drab image. However, since Charlotte stood her ground and never relented to her mother’s dictates – that is, after her therapy and cruise Charlotte’s mother gradually learned to accept what Charlotte liked, denoting that she earned the respect of the one person she despised the most. On the contrary, the image of Vivian as portrayed by Julia Roberts is that of a regular hooker or prostitute – flashy colors, thigh high boots, a lot of exposed flesh, heavy make-up, a wig, and chewing gum while talking. The first impression upon seeing her is that she is really part of the flesh trade because of her loud attire which is also sexy, seductive and attention-grabbing all at the same time. Vivian’s character cannot afford to be shy because she has to offer her wares to her clients, and she has to show some skin and have the ability to bargain with her clients so that she can arrive at a good price for her services. Her image is far from conservative because of this film’s setting (1990) and the nature of her occupation. With Edward’s help, Vivian later on becomes more learned as he exposes her to the more acceptable social mores of the upper classes of society. Vivian evolves to become a better character where she becomes chic, classy, refined and graceful – a change which further endears her to Edward. The modification is also well-liked by the people around her as Edward somehow manages to bring out more of Vivian’s natural beauty which further enhances her amiable character. From Edward, to the hotel manager, to the elevator boy, to the hotel staff every one of them was glad to see the way Vivian was revolutionized from a cheaply dressed hooker to a charming, elegant and respectable lady. She now wears hats, matching shoes and bags, well-coordinated outfits, matching color combinations and just sufficient make-up. She also begins to converse more politely, and in a soft and calm manner. With the outward personality of Vivian getting altered, Vivian also acquires more confidence in herself and the way she mingles with people. It is also interesting to note that Vivian readily accepted the change initiated by Edward because the manner with which he approached her on the subject was very encouraging, being very gentle and soft-spoken. Towards the end of the story, the character of Vivian also decides to give up her previous job for a more decent alternative since she feels that she has become a different person and that at this point, she cannot turn back. As regards the body parts focused on by these two films, in Now Voyager, the legs and hands of Charlotte were focused in the first part of the film when she was still being introduced into the sequence. The specific scenes showed her hands putting out a cigarette on a small platter then throwing away the butts in a garbage can, then carving on her ivory treasure boxes, and then later on, fidgeting as her condition was being relayed to the psychiatrist. Her legs and feet were also focused on in the same sequences as she went down the stairs, and then stops at the lowest step, then hesitates because she hears something unfavorable being said about her. The character of Charlotte were in some way depicted in these sequences because it brought to mind a confused and insecure character who tried to rebel by smoking cigarettes, escaping reality by carving, but is insecure and uncertain of her actions as shown by her fidgeting and unsure steps. Similarly, the body parts focused on in the film Pretty Woman in the introductory part of the film is 4 hands which look like they are playing a game. It turns out to be a magic trick using coins, and the camera is slowly panned up to the face of the woman on the right, who looks amazed at the man who performed the magic trick. The next scene showing body parts is again focused on the hands – one white hand giving a packet with some white substance, presumably drugs, to the two hands of a black man. And then, the body part of Vivian that is first shown is the back side of her hips with lace underwear, where the woman turns from her left side to her right side while lying on a bed. Next, her chest is focused as she fixes her blouse, then her arms and hands as she puts on her bangles, while she is dressing up to get ready for work. Her hands are again shown while she colors the faded parts of her boots with a black marker, then her boots and her right hand as she zips up the boot on her left leg. Her left eye is focused with her right hand holding the mascara. By the time Vivian gets to meet Edward for the first time, focus is made on her backside at the waist portion as she turns her back on Edward while standing outside the car. All these body parts scenes in one way or another sets the tone for the movie since it tackles business as represented by the coins, drugs as related to the illegal businesses on Hollywood boulevard and the subject of sex as depicted by Vivian’s sensual attire in a nocturnal red-light district setting. The partial focusing on body parts gradually introduced the main character of Vivian, in much the same way that Charlotte was initiated into the first sequences of the earlier film. Relating the aspects of characterization to each film, the width of the character of Charlotte had to be rich in order for her to be able to adopt Tina into her family and be able to cope with not having Jerry in her life. Charlotte also had to be strong like her mother to be able to manage their businesses and their household without any emotional crutch to support her or push her up. As regards the depth of her character, Charlotte has the traits of creativity as shown in the way she creates carvings on her ivory boxes. She is also a deeply emotional person, who is terribly passionate when it comes to love, although she knows how to repress it if need be. This was highly evident during the time when she knew she already felt something for Jerry, but was in self-denial because she did not want to get into a complicated situation. This, however, was changed eventually when he admitted her feelings for Jerry, and allowed her feelings for him to flow freely. Another depth of character seen in Charlotte is her compassion for children, especially for those whom she knows are undergoing situations which she had already gone through. This Charlotte presents in the way which she cared for Tina at the mental institution, and during the time she gave a party for her at her house. Regarding characterization length, as mentioned earlier, Charlotte is given the chance to reinvent herself as if she were a different individual. At first, she is hesitant to leave her comfort zone and feels insecure about the changes taking place in her life. However, as she notices the affirmative reception of people pertaining to her transformation, she is encouraged to continue with what she has set out to do. With this, she improves her personality and grows further as an individual. The film’s mise-en-scene contributed in large part to emphasizing the three aspects of characterization. The width of Charlotte’s character is shown in the clothes she wears. Charlotte’s clothes or the character’s costumes are customary of the rich people, the settings are also typical of high class social backgrounds as shown by the large house, the cruise ship, the theater and parties among others. Depth of character is illustrated by the emotions carried by Bette Davis in her character portrayal, which made the story even more realistic. Length of character is exhibited by the change in the way Charlotte carries herself – which is amply supported by the clothes and again by the acting prowess of the lead character. Some foreshadowing is used to show the influences of Charlotte’s mom on her character. Since the film is still in black and white, emphasis on the lighting was not much utilized in this type of movie. The background music was amply exploited to elicit empathy for the main character especially in highly dramatic scenes between Charlotte and her lover. Conversely, the width of Vivian’s character required for her to be poor so that she could effectively portray her desperation to earn a living. Vivian had to be street-smart yet appealing at the same time since it was her body that she had to sell. She also had to be alone or without a family, in order to develop a rationale for her character’s focus on having an income as a hooker because she had no other choice and not because she liked the job. Likewise, Vivian’s depth of character is effectively portrayed as one who can easily psyche up people. In a brief encounter with Edward’s ‘friends’, Vivian gets to assess the type of people Edward socializes with and comes out with the conclusion that Edward needed to have her in his life because they (his friends) were shallow. â€Å"No wonder you came looking for me,† Vivian deduces of the situation. Much like Charlotte, Vivian also had a lot of passion inside her for her love interest although much of it was also repressed at first. Later on, she manifests this and makes this known to Edward, but still she knew how to temper her emotions since she recognized from the start that she and Edward were really poles apart. And then with regards to character length, the journey taken by Vivian is her adaptation to the ways of the elite, as prescribed by her love interest in the film. Vivian initially decides to take this on as part of her work, but later on she imbibes the more wholesome character which she assumes, and eventually gives up on the old character that she was. Vivian grows as a person because she welcomes the change and becomes a renewed person since as the film ends, she decides to leave behind her previous profession and start making a new path for herself. The mise-en-scene in Pretty Woman was likewise extensively manipulated in the film. The change in the character is immediately apparent as Vivian becomes accustomed to her new surroundings and much of the plot deals with how she gradually blends in to what is acceptable to that social group. The disparity in the setting of Hollywood boulevard compared to the areas where Edward frequents is accentuated to point out the gap between the two characters – Vivian the hooker and Edward the rich billionaire. Much of the character’s depth and length is carried by Julia Roberts who gives an excellent portrayal in this film. The lighting was good, there were no extremely dim or very bright scenes. It is interesting to note that most of the dim scenes were only found in the initial part when Vivian was still a hooker, and during the time she was still part of Hollywood boulevard. Later on, the dim scenes were mostly the love scenes between Edward and Vivian. The background music was also appropriate with the sentimental scenes having soft soothing and sentimental tunes, while those wherein Vivian made some achievements had more spirited and lively songs. In terms of aesthetics, the two films can be labeled as reflective of the image of the woman in the specified period when the films were made. Women in general had to dress up more conservatively in the olden times and a liberated stance was only introduced later on. As regards film artistry, Now Voyager! has a deeper and more disturbing plot because it deals with issues like family relationships, possible mental illness and forbidden love among others. On the other hand, Pretty Woman’s plot is simpler but is more engaging because it capitalizes on the elements of love and sex which was not much emphasized in the earlier film. Perhaps this is due to the highly conservative values predominant during the earlier times, hence, the most tender love scenes which could be shown between the main characters in the earlier film was limited to kissing. In comparing the two films, women are given more freedom of choice in the later film, unlike the earlier one when parents had the right to dictate the direction of their children’s lives. In both films, the theme of love still tugs at the heart and is timeless. Viewers in the present can identify with the main character in one way or another especially when it comes to the context of love and the relationship between two people. As a whole, the two films illustrate how the character of the woman has evolved from the conservative one of yesteryears to the smarter and more liberated woman that she is now. Still, the one thing that is universal and eternally holds true is the theme of love and the woman who has the boundless capability to wield this passion. References Wallis, H. B. Rapper, I. 1942. Now Voyager. United States: Warren Bros. Ziskin, L. Marshall, G. 1990. Pretty Woman. United States: Touchstone Pictures.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Comparing the Supernatural in William Shakespeares Hamlet and Macbeth

Comparing the Supernatural in William Shakespeare's Hamlet and Macbeth  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚   In the time of William Shakespeare there was a strong belief in the existence of the supernatural. Therefore, the supernatural is a recurring theme in many of Shakespeare's plays. In two such plays, Hamlet and Macbeth, the supernatural is an integral part of the structure of the plot. It provides a catalyst for action, an insight into character, and an augmentation of the impact of many key scenes. The supernatural appears to the audience in many varied forms. In Hamlet there appears perhaps the most notable of the supernatural forms, the ghost. However, in Macbeth, not only does a ghost appear, but also a floating dagger, witches, and prophetic apparitions also make appearances. The role of the supernatural is very important in both Hamlet and Macbeth. A ghost, in the form of Hamlet's father, makes several visitations in the play. It first appears to the watchmen, Marcellus and Bernardo, along with Horatio near the guardsmen's post. The ghost, though silent causes them a little anxiety, "It harrows me with fear and wonder"(I.i.53). It is not until the appearance of Hamlet that the ghost speaks, and only then after Horatio has expressed his fears about Hamlet following it, "What if it tempt you toward the flood, my lord, or to the dreadful summit of the cliff"(I.iv.76-77). The conversation between the ghost and Hamlet serves as a catalyst for Hamlet's later actions and provides insight into Hamlet's character. The information the ghost reveals incites Hamlet to action against a situation with which he was already uncomfortable, and now is even more so. Hamlet is not quick to believe the ghost, "The spirit that I have seen may be ... ...e supernatural provides a catalyst for action by the characters. It supplies insight into the major players and it augments the impact of many key scenes. The supernatural appeals to the audience's curiosity of the mysterious and thus strengthens their interest. Works Cited Curry, Walter. Supernatural in Hamlet and Macbeth. London: Mass Peter Smith, 1968. Epstein, Norrie, The Friendly Shakepeare, New York, Viking Publishing, 1993. Magill, Masterplots- Volume 6, New Jersey, Salem Press, 1949. Schlegel, August Wilhelm.   Criticism on Shakespeare s Tragedies . A Course   Ã‚  of Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature. London: AMS Press, Inc., 1965.  Ã‚   Shakespeare, William.   Tragedy of Macbeth . Ed. Barbara Mowat and Paul  Ã‚   Warstine. New York: Washington Press, 1992.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Wills, Gary. Witches & Jesuits. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.   

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Implications Of Shared Characteristics For Literacy Instruction Education Essay

Child with Down syndrome ( DS ) have several general features in common which play an of import function in how good they are able to prosecute in literacy acquisition ; some of these features are cognitive, whilst others are physical. This paper identifies some of these shared features and high spots the deductions of these for literacy direction in mainstream schoolrooms ; it so provides illustrations of possible differentiated direction in reading and authorship, and support that instructors can give to DS kids so that their specific demands are met within a regular schoolroom context. Finally, it highlights how instructors, professionals and parents can work together in an organized manner to guarantee that DS kids are being every bit supported at both school and place. DS kids make a alone part to mainstream schoolrooms ; their emotional, physical and academic demands can be demanding for the instructor but when these are met, advancement can be made. This advancement will non g o on overnight but as the expression goes, â€Å" Good things take clip. † Shared Features of Down Syndrome Children Possibly the most of import feature of DS scholars is that their chronological age and physical adulthood are non declarative of their rational development, which develops at a much slower rate. For illustration, a DS pupil who is 10 old ages old might work cognitively and linguistically at the same degree as a typical 5 twelvemonth old ( Farrell & A ; Elkins, 1994 ) . DS pupils normally have problem with the development of their gross and all right motor accomplishments, which combined with a really low musculus tone affects the person ‘s ability to keep an appropriate position whilst acquisition. Fine motor accomplishment jobs mean that simple activities such as keeping a book and turning a page can be hard, as is handwriting ( Jordan, Miller & A ; Riley, 2011 ) . Because kids with DS frequently struggle to bring forth speech sounds and talk clearly, it is widely accepted that DS kids ‘s receptive vocabulary, is more advanced than their expressive vocabulary ( Farrell & A ; Elkin, 1994 ; Jordan et Al, 2011 ) . Stoel-Gammon ( 2010 ) states that DS kids by and large have a slow vocabulary growing ; by the clip kids are six, a DS kid has a productive vocabulary of around 330 words whereas his mainstream equals have productive vocabularies of several thousand words. Although hearing loss is a characteristic of these kids, they compensate by being extremely ocular scholars and when larning to read rely on their stronger ocular processing accomplishments to larn new words, instead than concentrating on letter-sound correspondences. Bing visually inclined, DS pupils learn to read utilizing a sight-word attack in which they recognise whole words based upon visual aspect and topographic point no accent on letter-sound relationships ( Lemons & A ; Fuchs, 2010 ) . DS kids have a high involvement in societal interaction and bask chances to collaborate, portion and learn with other people. They besides have high emotional demands and necessitate four times every bit much positive feedback as other pupils do ( Down syndrome WA, 2009 ) . Deductions of these Shared Characteristics for Literacy Instruction DS kids are sensitive to failure and deficiency consolidation schemes when larning. For this ground, Buckley and Bird ( 1993 ) recommend that instructors minimise pupil failure ; instructors can make this by to a great extent scaffolding them through each measure of a new reading or composing undertaking until they can finish it without the instructor ‘s intercession. Buckley and Bird highlight that DS pupils experience considerable trouble rectifying errors, much more so than other kids, so forestalling errors happening in the first topographic point is of import in the early phases of new acquisition, particularly with script. There are really strong links between DS pupils talking, reading and composing accomplishments. As mentioned, DS pupils learn to read best by larning sight-words instead than concentrating on letter-sound relationships to decrypt them. This impacts on the manner that instructors teach DS kids to read as it is non the same manner that they will learn the remainder of their mainstream pupils ( Buckley & A ; Bird, 1993 ) . As DS pupils are larning sight-words, instructors should promote them to correctly articulate them every bit good ; these two accomplishments interact with and inform each other so that the kid grows to understand the significances of words. The instruction and acquisition of composing straight links to speech and reading, excessively. Because DS pupils have small cognition of sentence structure, larning to compose utilizing common linguistic communication constructions influences how they begin to talk ; fundamentally, they learn the construction of sentences through acquisition to compose them and so get down to mime this construction when they are talking ( Buckley & A ; Bird ) . Although the usual attack to reading and composing for DS kids is through sight-words cognition, it is possible for them to larn letter-sound relationships ; instructors can help this by indicating out letter-sound correspondences in words that pupils already know good and pulling their attending to onset and rhyme within that word ( Buckley & A ; Bird, 1993 ) . Because DS kids do non follow auditory instructions good, instructors need to show information/directions/explanations/instructions in a ocular manner. Farrell and Elkers ( 1994 ) highlight that DS pupils prefer print because the ocular message does non melt away like a verbal message does. Kirijian, Myers and Charland ( 2007 ) reference that the instructor ‘s informed choice of literacy stuffs can maintain DS pupils engaged on the content for well longer periods of clip than they would be the instance if they were utilizing regular schoolroom stuffs. As DS kids have trouble with cognitive development, musculus tone and all right motor accomplishments, they find reading and composing undertakings more palling than others in their category do ; instructors need to be cognizant of this and give them smaller sums of work to finish or let short interruptions during lengthier activities ( Down syndrome Ireland, 2011 ) . Differentiated Direction for Teaching Down Syndrome Children Writing Before any authorship can take topographic point, instructors need to guarantee that their DS pupils have their organic structures supported in an unsloped place so they are non using energy seeking to keep an unsloped place because of their hapless musculus tone. Because all right motor accomplishments are ill developed, DS pupils ‘ handwriting direction can be adapted to holding the kid following letters in the air or on a flaxen surface with a finger, instead than doing them pull with a pencil on paper like other pupils. Once they have a strong tweezer clasp, the instructor can scaffold script by utilizing a highlighter to organize letters which the DS kid can follow over ; this will necessitate to be done many times before the kid is able to copy it, himself. It is of import that instructors ne'er assign the script to pattern and walk off to look into on other pupils because if the DS pupil makes a whole row of wrong letters, he is larning bad wonts that will be really hard to rectify. During these composing lessons, a feel good factor is critical for DS pupils to larn so it is better for them to merely compose 3 letters during this clip and have the lesson coating with them happy than for them to hold to compose more and stop up detesting authorship clip ( Down Syndrome WA, 2009 ) . During the existent authorship activities, instructors frequently need to back up DS pupils with both the formation of thoughts and so scribing them ; this is frequently done through joint building of texts by the pupil and instructor ( Moni & A ; Jobling, 2000 ) . As mentioned antecedently, instructors need to promote DS pupils to joint their thought as they read and write. To promote this, the instructor acts as a Scribe by composing down the pupil ‘s thoughts for him. Next, the instructor and child return turns physically composing the bill of exchange together ; this is done to avoid weariness in the pupil and assist him to accomplish something that would be beyond his ability if working unaided. By co-constructing texts, the instructor is besides patterning the thought processes required for authorship ; these texts can so be used for future reading pattern as it has significance for them. Another manner that instructors ‘ can distinguish composing for DS pupils is t o promote them to utilize a word processor to type up their co-constructed bill of exchange ; during this exercising, the instructor can cut down the scaffold by taking herself from the pupil and giving him a opportunity to work independently ( Moni & A ; Jobling, 2000 ) . Differentiated Direction for Teaching Down Syndrome Children Reading For the DS pupil, instructors need to make single reading ends and undertakings that are much simpler than those set for the remainder of the category. When larning to read, DS pupils require considerable more repeat to solidify larning than their mainstream equals do ( Jordan, Miller & A ; Riley, 2011 ) . By instructors uniting repeat of an activity with stuffs aimed at the DS kid ‘s ocular acquisition penchant, they are able to capitalize on run intoing both these demands in one spell. As pronunciation of sight-words is an issue for DS kids, instructors need to pattern this at the same clip that larning the word is happening. In several respects, DS kids learn to read in an opposite manner to mainstream students. DS kids learn the whole word foremost and attach significance to it at the same clip, whereas other pupils will utilize letter-sound correspondences to read the word and so use intending to it through sentence context. Once DS kids know a word, the instructor can construct on this by offering phonics direction utilizing that word, ab initio sectioning it into onset and rime and finally placing letter-phoneme relationships if the kid is able to. DS kids struggle with comprehension as their grammar and sentence structure cognition is ill developed or non-existent ( Buckley & A ; Bird, 1993 ) . To get the better of this, instructors can do simple books based on the kid ‘s ain experiences and write sentences with the kid ‘s spoken linguistic communication demands in head so that he is reading words, phrases and sentences aimed towards assisting him to speak with greater lucidity ( Buckley & A ; Bird ) . DS kids require little ‘bite sized ‘ reading undertakings instead than the 1s typically given to other pupils ; this enables them to experience a sense of accomplishment and stop the lesson on the all of import positive note. Because DS kids have high societal demands, instructors can integrate them into group and equal activities to increase larning chances accomplishments ( Snowling, Nash & A ; Henderson, 2010 ) . Teachers can besides offer reading support to DS pupils by supplying modeling of reading as equals read a text aloud whilst the DS pupil tracks the print in his ain book ; the same text can be repeated by several pupils as the repeat is of import for larning to happen. A similar affect can be achieved by utilizing engineering such as computing machine programmes that read aloud while pupils follow the text on screen. How Parents and Professionals can be Involved in a Literacy larning Partnership Due to the demands of learning DS kids literacy, instructors have terrible restraints placed on their clip as one-to-one direction is the most effectual manner of learning them. As such, it is necessary that the instructor receives help from a teacher adjutant or voluntary so that she can give attending to the other pupils in her category. The monetary value of holding an inclusive schoolroom is that particular demands pupils place force per unit area on the instructor. To get by with this, the instructor needs to garner together a support squad that can portion these demands and work hand in glove to learn the DS kid. With respects to literacy acquisition, it is of import that this school-based support squad works closely with the DS kid ‘s parents so that school and place literacy events are aligned and concentrating on a specific result. When DS kids are larning a specific reading accomplishment, instructors or specializers can teach parents how to reenforce this same acquis ition at place ( Snowling, Nask & A ; Henderson, 2010 ) . For illustration, Snowling et Al. province that parents frequently fail to inquire higher-level inquiries during reading activities with their DS kids ; as such, instructors can offer specific direction to parents on how to make this, likewise for onset/rime cleavage and phonological consciousness direction. This attack ensures that the kid is n't being instructed in two perchance counter-productive ways. Regular meetings and conferences between learning staff and parents should be held to measure advancement and program for following measure larning. These meetings besides give both parties an chance to discourse any concerns and maintain each other informed about other facets of the kid ‘s life, such as health/emotional province etc, which may hold an impact on larning ability. Decision Teaching DS kids is non a simple undertaking. They bring a combination of demands into the schoolroom which if separately broken down would each supply a challenge for the instructor to suit. The first measure to learning DS pupils is cognizing the issues that they face when larning to read, compose and talk ; these issues are both cognitive and physical and have deductions for how schoolroom instruction and acquisition is accomplished. DS pupils do n't larn the same manner as mainstream pupils do ; they require really heavy staging and advancement really easy when developing literacy accomplishments. However, single instructors are non entirely in this undertaking ; they have the support of other professionals and the kid ‘s parents, and jointly this group provides the kid with the emotional, physical, and academic support needed to go an active and valued member of both the schoolroom and wider society.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Quiet Professionalism - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 346 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/04/12 Category Career Essay Level High school Tags: Professionalism Essay Did you like this example? As we reach the end of the year, I believe it is always a worthwhile endeavor to reflect on the goals you have accomplished, what you hope to achieve in the coming year, and the associated action steps that will help you realize those items. Similarly, I also believe it is important to reflect upon day-to-day behaviors, and how repeated excellence in small, seemingly trivial matters, lay the foundation upon which the large structures of personal integrity, calmness under pressure, and quiet professionalism are built. The work we do is challenging, and complex. The groups we interact with, both internal and external, are numerous and diverse. The visibility of our team is high, and subject to intense levels of scrutiny. We are an impassioned group of individuals that through shared trials, often by fire, are brought together as a cohesive unit. It is this conglomeration of conditions that often times make dealing with others who do not understand our challenges nor understand our passions, and talents the subject of frustration. I urge you to channel these frustrations in a constructive manner. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Quiet Professionalism" essay for you Create order When dealing with external partners, counterparties, regulators, and senior leadership, exercise patience when working with those who do not understand the depths and complexity of our charge. Profanity is not professional, nor constructive. Flared tempers are not professional, and damage credibility. Condescension is not professional, and a direct affront to a culture of shared success. There can be no question that at times I am among, if not the largest offender of these items. You are owed better from me as a leader, and are deserving of someone that can help showcase your talents, which are exceptional. You have my word that I will strive for personal excellence in this endeavor. In the coming days, Resource Management leadership will begin the alignment and ranking process. It is my commitment to all of you that I will enter the process on your behalf with tenacity personified through quiet professionalism. In the days, weeks, and months ahead, help arm me with arrows of your own quiet professionalism.